J R R Tolkien
Tolkien and Linguistics
Like his friend C. S. Lewis, he was also a linguist of considerable note and his work inspired much of his fiction.
Tolkien specialized in English philology at university, graduating with Old Norse as special subject in 1915.
Tolkien created several notable constructed languages including
Tolkien believed that languages were tied to the mythology of the cultures they belonged to
The Lord of the Rings trilogy was, in fact, created as a background in which to explore his artlangs; the various Elvish languages include Quenya and Sindarin, the proto-language Primitive Quendian, Common Eldarin, , Goldogrin, Telerin, Ilkorin, Nandorin and Avarin.
For the races of Men and by Hobbits he created Taliska (spoken by Men of the houses of Bëor and Hador, and based on the the Gothic language), Adûnaic (spoken by the Men of Númenor during the Second Age), and Westron (the Soval Pharë, or ‘Common Speech’, derived from Adûnaic).
Less developed languages of Men referenced by Tolkien include Dalish (spoken by Men of the Dale), Rohirric (the language of the Rohirrim of Rohan, represented by Anglo-Saxon), Rhovanion (spoken by the Men of Rhovanion, or Wilderland, and represented by Gothic), Haladin (spoken by the Men of the House of Haleth), Dunlendish (of the Dunlendish, naturally), Drûg (of the Drúedain), Haradrim (of the Men of Herad), and Easterling (spoken by the Men of the East).
Tolkien and Politics
”My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning the abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs)—or to ‘unconstitutional’ Monarchy. I would arrest anybody who uses the word State (in any sense other than the inanimate realm of England and its inhabitants, a thing that has neither power, rights nor mind); and after a chance of recantation, execute them if they remained obstinate! If we could get back to personal names, it would do a lot of good. Government is an abstract noun meaning the art and process of governing and it should be an offence to write it with a capital G or so to refer to people”
– J R R Tolkien
Tolkien, J R R (1937) The Hobbit
Tolkien, J R R (1954) The Fellowship of the Ring
Tolkien, J R R (1954) The Two Towers
Tolkien, J R R (1955) The Return ofthe King
Tolkien, J R R (1977) The Silmarillion