Informal Fallacies

Informal fallacies are arguments whose stated premises fail to support their proposed conclusion.

Red Herrings

Red Herring fallacies, also known as irrelevant conclusionsirrelevant theses or fallacies of distraction (Ignoratio elenchi) include genetic fallacies, which are fallacies based on the source of the argument.

Examples include ad hominem arguments, which attack the qualifications, motivation or honesty of their opponent; a particularly noxious variations being Reductio ad Hitlerum, or ‘Playing the Nazi Card’.

Tu quoque, the appeal to hypocrisy.

I discuss examples of Reductio ad Hitlerum and Tu quoque in my essay on ad hominem arguments.

An opposing variation is the Argument from Authority.

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