Posthumanism can refer to either what comes after the human race or the anti-humanist philosophy of Michel FoucaultLouis Althusser and Judith Butler.

Mary Shelley‘s Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus (1818)


Charles Darwin‘s On the Origin of Species (1859)

Edward Bulwer-Lytton‘s The Coming Race (1871)

H. G. Wells‘s The Time Machine (1895) takes us to the year 802,701 A.D., where the human race have split between the effete Eloi, a society of small, elflike adults and the subterranean Morlocks.

The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897), The War of the Worlds (1898), Men Like Gods (1923)

Olaf Stapledon wrote Last and First Men (1930),  and Sirius (1935) and Star Maker (1937)

Last and First Men PenguinStarmaker


Alfred Bester‘s  The Demolished Man (1953) and The Stars My Destination (a.k.a. Tiger! Tiger!, 1956)

Judge Dredd


Isaac Asimov’s The Mule

John Wyndham‘s The Crysalids (1955) and The Midwich Cuckoos (1957)

Stan Lee, in collaboration with Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, co-created Spider-Man, the Hulk, the X-Men, the Fantastic FourIron Man and Thor.

Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons’ Watchmen and Moore and David Lloyd’s V for Vendetta.


Man Plus (1976) by Frederik Pohl

Kit Pedler and Gerry Davis.

Iceberg by David Banks (Virgin New Adventures)

Killing Ground by Steve Lyons (Virgin Missing Adventures)

Illegal Alien by Mike Tucker and Robert Perry (BBC Past Doctor Adventures)

Made of Steel by Terrance Dicks

Dona Haraway’s “A Cyborg Manifesto” (1991)

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